Our good friend holistic nutrition coach and wholefoods chef Lee Holmes has just launched a six-week online Fast Your Way to Wellness program.
As challenging as fasting might seem, it’s well worth it because it’s actually fantastic for your good gut flora.
Bioxyne: Why is fasting good for your gut bacteria?
LH: Scientists are now starting to determine whether there is any impact on the human microbiome during intermittent fasting. Scientific research reveals that intermittent fasting may restore microbe diversity in the gut, increase tolerance against bad gut microbes, and restore the integrity of the intestinal epithelium. This is not confirmed in periods of continued fasting however, so intermittent fasting is the best way to assist gut health.
Bioxyne: How do you incorporate fasting into your wellness program?
LH: The six week program can be done in a number of ways and I cover each different way from the 16:8 model where breakfast is delayed to give you a 16 hour break between dinner and breakfast, and the 5:2 model where reduced calories for men and women are undertaken two days per week.
Bixoyne: What can people expect if they join Fast Your Way to Wellness?
LH: This is a great fasting plan of action designed to make intermittent fasting easy and doable. It’s been tried and tested over two years so we know that it works! There are delicious recipes and meal planners and shopping lists plus regular emails and inspiration to keep you going to reach your goals.
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as eczema, is a common inflammatory skin disease affecting 10% of the population.
Eczema has a negative impact on quality of life; visual issues aside, it can be uncomfortably itchy and sore.
The first signs of atopic dermatitis usually appear early in life, from about six months of age, and often precede other allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. The majority of cases (at least 60%) arise within the first year of life.
The symptoms in young children are characterised by dry and scaly patches on the scalp, forehead, and face. These patches are very common on the cheeks.
A clinical study has shown that the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentumVRI-003 (otherwise known as Bioxyne’s PCC®) may alleviate the symptoms of eczema in infants.
Notably, the improvement in symptom severity with PCC® treatment was still evident two months after the treatment stopped.In a follow up scientific study, this was shown to be associated with the ability of PCC® to activate and boost the body’s immune response.
Bioxyne’s Chief Scientific Officer Dr Peter French reviews the findings of these studies in the White Paper: Probiotics in the treatment of atopic dermatitis
Read more about each of the two studies:
Effects of probiotics on atopic dermatitis
Clinical effects of probiotics are associated with increased interferon-g responses in very young children with atopic dermatitis.
Australian life sciences company Bioxyne today announces positive results from its Australian clinical trial into the effects of taking a daily probiotic supplement containing the bacteria strain Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003, with participants who consumed the probiotic reporting a consistent reduction in gas and bloating compared to those on placebo.
Women appeared to benefit more from taking the probiotic than men.
Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 has been shown in laboratory studies to inhibit the growth of a range of "unfriendly" microbes, including enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Clostridiumv1, which are some of the major organisms responsible for food poisoning and traveller’s diarrhoea. This latest clinical trial indicates it can help reduce gas and bloating when consumed daily, particularly in women, and may therefore be effective in providing symptomatic relief in some cases of gut microbiome dysbiosis disorders.
The double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial examined the effect of taking Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 (minimum of 2 billion cfus) for six months on the microbiome composition, gut health and quality of life of healthy participants. A total of 47 participants completed the study, with an average age of 35 and an almost even split of men and women.
While the study associated a range of health benefits with taking 2 billion CFU of Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003, including less antibiotic use, the most notable impact was in relation to the reduction of gas, bloating and general stomach rumbling.
Commenting on the results, Bioxyne’s scientific advisor, cell and molecular biologist Dr Peter French, PhD, said:
“Your gut microbiome is very important for gut health. It can be disrupted by a range of things, including antibiotic use, stress, travel and a poor diet. It’s recognised that gas and bloating can be signs of an unbalanced gut microbiome, which is why we asked the trial participants to report these, amongst other symptoms, during the six-month trial.
“The participants who took the probiotic on a daily basis reported consistently lower incidence of both gas and bloating starting from around six weeks. There was also a consistently lower incidence of stomach rumbling. The women in the study appeared to benefit more from the probiotic treatment – it is recognised that probiotics can affect women and men differently due to sex hormones.
“I would suggest health practitioners working with patients where they suspect symptoms are caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis consider whether supplementation with Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 may be appropriate.”
Trial participants were also asked to provide three stool samples for 16S RNA microbiome analysis - one prior to commencing the trial, one at 3 months and the last at 6 months, using a dedicated sample collection kit. In addition, they were asked to complete a daily diary recording gastrointestinal symptoms and bowel movements, a validated quality of life questionnaire (SF36), and a record of any adverse effects. No probiotic-associated adverse effects were reported, and no gross global change was seen in the overall composition of the gut microbiome.
“The lack of significant changes at the phylum or genus level on the microbiome composition in the trial is consistent with previous studies of other probiotic organisms. It is likely that the beneficial effect of Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 is due to effects on a small number of key friendly and unfriendly species or strains of gut microbes, as has been seen in laboratory studies of this organism. An effect on specific strains could explain the beneficial effects on some self-reported gut symptoms seen in the trial,” Dr French said.
More about Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003
The efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 has been demonstrated by scientific and clinical trials including double-blind, randomized studies with more than 200 people.
In clinical trials, Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 has demonstrated positive effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems, including reduced susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, improvement in eczema (atopic dermatitis) symptoms, and boosting of the immune response to the flu vaccine2.
Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 is of human origin, exhibits superior survival to other probiotics in the acidic (pH 2-4) environment found in the stomach and large intestine, colonises the human intestinal tract and stimulates the areas of immune tissue in the small intestine2.
Bioxyne has trademarked Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 ‘PCC’. Read Why PCC.
1data on file
2data on file
There are over 120 different species of Lactobacillus. The most famous ones are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus fermentum. (We italicise their names as a scientific convention, for some reason).
In each species there are thousands of individual members referred to as “strains”. A bacterial strain has its strain name after the species name. So, Bioxyne’s probiotic is a strain of the Lactobacillus fermentum species. The strain is VRI-003, so its full name is Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003.
To understand the relationship between a species and its strains, think about us humans. All seven billion of us on Earth are members of the Homo sapiens species. But we are all individually different, and are good at different things. The same is true with Lactobacillus acidophilus, and all the other Lactobacillus species. Some are really good for our health, and some aren’t. Just because you are a human doesn’t mean you can paint like Vincent van Gogh, or sing like Adele, or dance like Fred Astaire, right? Individual members of the human species have different talents and abilities. So it is with probiotics.
You can’t tell what the talents of a probiotic bacterial strain are by looking at it (under a microscope). Scientists have to test them in the lab and in people, before they can know whether they are going to be useful for health, or not. Many are useless. However, some are very useful.
Can it do the job? Checking the resume of a probiotic
In applying for a job, people prepare a resume. You wouldn’t employ someone who just walked in off the street without interviewing them or looking at their resume to see if they had the right qualifications or experience first, would you? Similarly, you shouldn’t buy a probiotic product without checking out the resume of the bacteria first.
Here are the things you should look for on a probiotic’s resume:
- Name: What is the species and strain name? If it doesn’t have a strain name, you don’t know which of the thousands of possible members of that species are in the bottle
- Where it comes from: For human health you want to have a probiotic that comes from a human (rather than from a cow or a plant)
- How it performs under stress: Look for evidence that it can get through the stomach acid and bile,and remain alive and kicking
- It doesn’t have a criminal record: Check that it doesn’t cause disease when consumed
- Has a track record and list of achievements:
- Sticks to the walls of the intestinal tract
- Is able to get rid of“bad” bacteria in the GI tract
- Is able to demonstrate its health benefit credentials in clinical trials
Bioxyne’s patented probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 (or PCC® for short – PCC® stands for patented clinical culture) meets all these criteria – see the resume below.
That’s why we have selected PCC® as the key ingredient in our range of PCC® products for gastrointestinal and immune health.
Read part one: What are probiotics?
Name: Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003
Origin: A human with robust gastrointestinal health
Career Objective: To boost gut and immune health of adults and infants through daily dosing of clinically trialled doses of PCC®.
University of New South Wales:
- Certificate of High Survival in Stomach Acid and Bile
- Certificate of Inhibition of Gastrointestinal Pathogens
- Certificate of Binding to the Intestinal tract
Previous Experience in Humans:
2005: Clinical trial of PCC® showing improvement in symptoms of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in infants
2008: Clinical trial of PCC® showing reduction in symptoms of respiratory tract infections in elite male athletes
2009: Clinical trial of PCC® showing boost in the immune response to the flu vaccine
2011: Clinical trial of PCC® showing reduction in symptoms of respiratory tract infections in elite male athletes
All of these trials confirmed that PCC® is safe for children and adults
Current Experience in Humans:
2016- present: Clinical trial of effect of PCC® on the gut microbiome of healthy adults
- Bioxyne Limited. Active ingredient in:
- proTract® for Atopic Dermatitis
- Progastrim® for gut health, and
- Progastrim® + Vitamin C for colds
- Pharmanex (NuSkin). Active ingredient in:
Dr Peter French, Director of Science, Bioxyne Limited, Sydney
A multi-member European research group has proposed a mechanism whereby probiotics can have a beneficial effect on a range of diseases, including obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and possibly allergy. They cite evidence that probiotics can stabilise a person’s intestinal barrier integrity. Many diseases are characterised by ‘leaky gut syndrome’, including those described above, as well as chronic kidney disease.
The study was published on line in the British Journal of Nutrition on the 19th January 2017 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004037)
In our intestinal tract, only a single layer of cells (called epithelial, or skin cells) forms the physical barrier between the intestinal contents and the underlying blood vessels and immune system. Therefore it is essential to health and well-being that this intestinal barrier is maintained. There are a number of systems that are designed to preserve the barrier integrity including secretion of mucus, antibodies and other proteins by the epithelial cells. In addition, the epithelial cells grip each other tightly using structures called “epithelial tight junctions” that stop bacteria and toxins getting through the barrier, between the cells. Also, the body’s “good” bacteria provide a defence against “bad” or pathogenic bacteria getting to the epithelial cells that form the barrier, and attacking them. When these systems fail, however, the barrier stops being effective, and toxins, pathogens and other undesirable chemicals and molecules can pass from the gut into the surrounding tissues and blood vessels, stimulating an inflammatory response and leading to a disturbance of the body’s immune system and functions. Therefore leaky gut syndrome underlies many diseases.
The authors reviewed a number of clinical and pre-clinical studies and concluded that, “a variety of studies imply that mucosal barrier function can be improved by probiotic treatment,” and therefore could have a beneficial impact on many diseases such as diabetes, obesity, IBS, IBD and possibly allergy (and others) that have as their underlying cause a faulty intestinal epithelial barrier. They called for more clinical studies in disease populations specifically looking for markers of improvement in epithelial barrier integrity.
This study adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding the potential wide- ranging health benefits of consuming clinically tested probiotics that show health benefits. But, the authors caution, not all probiotics work, or work the same way.
- Bron PA, Kleerebezem M, Brummer R-J, Cani PD. “Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?” Br J Nutr 2017; 19:1-15.
- Evenepoel P, Poesen R, Meijers B. The gut-kidney axis. Pediatr Nephrol 2016; doi: 10.1007/s00467-016-3527-x
If Bioxyne affiliated practitioner Odette Blacklock looks familiar, it’s likely because 2017 saw the health and fitness specialist gracing our TVs as a Survivor Australia castaway. An almost all-encompassing expert when it comes to movement, Odette’s list of credentials covers podiatry, running, personal training and pilates. Odette also recently celebrated being appointed head coach and program director of Virgin Active’s new outdoor running program.
Odette took time out for her insanely busy schedule to talk to us about her own wellbeing rituals and how she factors gut health into her overall health regimes.
How long have you been a health practitioner for?
I have been in the health and fitness industry as a personal trainer and pilates instructor for over 10 years. Recently graduating from a Masters in Podiatrist Medicine, I have been practicing in my clinic for almost two years. Because of my expertise in gait mechanics, I am the head coach and program director of Virgin Actives new Outdoor running program.
Where does your interest in health and wellbeing originate?
It originates from my own personal experience with depression. After having my son I fell into unhealthy habits. The only thing that felt most accessible to me was running. This gave me the momentum to fix other areas of my life including diet, I then endeavoured to learn more about health and fitness by doing my personal training certificate, which lead me to doing my bachelors of health science and later my Masters in Podiatrist Medicine. I am always constantly learning and growing in this area, and my passion lies in being able to educate and teach people on how to improve their health and love their bodies.
What have been your career highlights and what are you working on at the moment?
After graduating with my Masters in 2016, I was lucky enough to be 1 of 2 Australians chosen to run in Death Valley for Under Armours Run Camp. This run made me redefine my own mental toughness, whilst showing me how far I have come on my journey. The following year I applied for Australian Survivor season 2 and stepped foot on the island a few months later, to learn yet again how mentally tough you have to be to survive. Being on the island allowed me to put life in perspective and find clarity for the future. I realised how much running had changed my life, so I founded Urban Run Club, and it quickly took off. This run group and my unique methods of training runners captured the attention of Virgin Active. A position has been created in the company and I am now head coach of my own program written and directed by me. I absolutely love the fact that I can bring running to a bigger audience.
Is there one piece of wellbeing advice you consistently find you give to your clients?
The hardest part is turning up- just make the effort to turn up consistently. Whether it’s two minutes of exercise or two hours, every bit gets added to the bank.
Do you have any wellbeing rituals you practice at home?
Cold showers and meditation. The mind is important to look after and these two practices allow me to be in the present moment and clam my thoughts. I also love a glass of wine and a Ted Talk ;)
How do you take care of your own gut health?
I obviously use a probiotic daily, and since using Bioxyne probiotics for myself and my son, we have not been sick once. I also make sure I feed my gut an array of vegetables and good fibre for the probiotics to eat and serve their purpose in the lower GI tract.
What do you see as the role of probiotics to health and wellbeing?
Our gut microbiome has over 100 trillion microbial cells compared to our 10 trillion human cells. So when these cells communicate they have a tremendous impact on our health. Numerous scientific studies have proven the beneficial effects of taking a high quality probiotic supplement, linking probiotics to weight management, higher energy levels, mental clarity and a stronger immune system.
In January 2018, Professor Claudio de Simone published a paper in the journal “Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology” in which he sent a warning about many of the commercial probiotics on the market. In the paper, entitled “The unregulated probiotic market”, Professor de Simone, who is an internationally recognised leader in the field of probiotics and the human gut microflora, stated:
“Many properties of probiotics are strain-specific, and safety and efficacy findings associated to specific formulations should not be generalised to other probiotic products.” This is crucial, because we at Bioxyne Limited know that not all probiotics provide a health benefit. We have undertaken several clinical studies to show that the specific strain in Progastrim®, PCC®, is highly effective at boosting gut and immune health.
Professor de Simone went on to say: “Manufacturing processes, conditions and ingredients are important determinants of product characteristics and changes to manufacturing are likely to give rise to a product not identical to the "original" in efficacy and safety if proper measures and controls are not taken.”
Bioxyne’s probiotic products are manufactured to the highest standards by world-leading probiotic manufacturer Chr Hansn, based in Denmark. This ensures that each batch of PCC® is the same consistent quality.
Professor de Simone concluded: “These regulatory deficits may have serious consequences for patients where probiotics are used as part of clinical guideline-recommended management of serious conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases, and may make doctors liable for prescribing a formulation not previously tested for safety and efficacy.”
Bioxyne’s dedication to clinical studies, manufacturing stringency and quality control ensures that consumers, patients and doctors alike can be confident that Progastrim®, does what it says it does in boosting gut and immune health.
de Simone C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jan 25. pii: S1542-3565 (18) 30084-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.01.018.
Bioxyne affiliated practitioner Lee Holmes has an impressive list of health-related titles to her name; she’s certified health and wellness coach, whole foods chef, hatha yoga teacher, author, blogger and holistic nutritionist. What’s even more impressive is that in the five years since Lee started practicing, she’s become something of a household name within the Australian wellbeing space. A great portion of her work is focused on gut health.
Where does your interest in health and wellbeing originate from?
After being diagnosed with an autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia a few years ago, I became accustomed to feelings of lethargy, pain and inflammation. I was prescribed to a cocktail of foreign chemicals and medications, which I was told, were going to help heal me. While the antibiotics did help ease some of my symptoms, I knew there was something deeper that I had to explore. This sparked my interest in health and wellbeing. I started researching all about health and the gut, writing down my own ideas and creating recipes that aligned with my new-found knowledge. This then lead to the creation of my blog, www.superchargedfood.com and got me to where I am today!
What have been your career highlights and what are you working on at the moment?
One of my biggest career highlights is the moment that I found out that my book, Heal Your Gut, was on its tenth print-run. I can’t describe how amazing it feels to have a book you’ve worked so hard on be so loved, useful and cherished by other people.
Another career highlight was creating my own products! I love the idea of a daily way to look after your gut, which led me to producing both my own Love Your Gut powder and Golden Gut Blend!
Finally, releasing my two gut healing programs – the Four-Week Heal Your Gut Program and my Love Your Gut bi-weekly program was a huge highlight for me.
Currently, I’m working on releasing my latest book, Supercharge Your Gut and other gut-loving powders! 2018 is shaping up to be a huge year for me and I can’t wait to see what else unfolds.
Is there one piece of wellbeing advice you consistently find you give to your clients?
Don’t overcomplicate it! Please don’t take on every single health tip you read, you’re more likely to regress and burn out. You don’t need every superfood on the planet to make you healthy, just eat real and whole foods.
Do you have any wellbeing rituals you practice at home?
Yes, I love sticking to my rituals! In the morning, I always take a glass of warm lemon water with my Love Your Gut powder. Then it’s time to move! I either head out the door for my morning walk or walk up to the gym depending on my mood.
This may not be a wellbeing ritual, but the one thing that truly motivates me to get home after my exercise is the thought of my frothy, home-made chai. Delicious.
In terms of night-time rituals, there’s nothing I love more than putting some Epsom salts in a bath, applying my Earth, Mask & Scrub and just relaxing! It’s so important to take care of ourselves every single day.
How do you take care of your own gut health?
I give my gut time to heal. As a result of all the toxins we ingest, foods we eat and chemicals we consume on a daily basis, the least our gut deserves is to rest. I let my gut rest by following an intermittent fasting regime. This doesn’t mean no food at all but rather, restricted calories over a short period of time. I recommend 500 calories per day for females and 600 calories per day for men two days a week. It’s the perfect time to let both you and your gut rest and digest. You can read more about intermittent fasting in my book Fast Your Way to Wellness.
What do you see as the role of probiotics in health and wellbeing?
Probiotics have been used for centuries to treat a variety of bowel conditions including constipation, diarrhoea and irritable bowel disease. Probiotics balance our microflora which in turn, helps support positive moods, boost energy and help produce other essential nutrients. They basically help the health world go-round.
Scientists from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) in November 20161 have demonstrated that the health of the gastrointestinal tract plays a key role in regulating healthy brain function. In a paper in the very prestigious international peer reviewed scientific journal Cell, the researchers reviewed 194 published papers that provide evidence for gut bacteria being “integral contributors to development and function of the nervous system and to the balance between mental health and disease”.
They presented evidence that showed the gut microbiome (the bacteria that reside in the gastrointestinal tract of humans) and/or probiotics could play a key role in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression and anxiety, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) . This was further supported by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences who provided evidence for the role of the microbiome, and, by implication, probiotics, in dementia2.
The role of the gut microbiome and probiotics in human health.
The authors acknowledge that the gut microbiome plays a significant role in the wellbeing of its host. Consumption of probiotics supplements the gut microbial population with a specific microbe, either transiently or permanently, and can change the microbiome profile and function, as well as interact with the host to produce a range of beneficial health effects. The effect of probiotics on immune health was clearly stated by the researchers: “Research in animal models and humans has inextricably linked gut bacteria to the development and function of the immune system. The presence of entire immune cell types requires the microbiome, and specific microbes have been discovered that either promote or ameliorate immunologic disorders such as type 1 diabetes, asthma, and inflammatory bowel disease.”
"Research in animal models and humans has inextricably linked gut bacteria to the development and function of the immune system"
In both papers the authors predominantly focused on evidence for the role of the gut microbiome in nervous system disorders.
Evidence for the ability of probiotics and the gut microbiome to influence mood:
- A study in healthy volunteers who consumed a fermented milk product containing probiotic bacteria showed alterations in brain activity during an attention task, in brain regions that control processing of sensation and emotion, in comparison to a control group who consumed a milk drink without probiotic bacteria.
- Another study in humans associated the gut microbiome in IBD with stress disorders.
- Gastrointestinal symptoms are associated with depression, with around 20% of patients reporting such symptoms.
- The composition of the gut microbiome in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients is significantly different from that of healthy controls3. When fecal samples from MDD
"Mouse and human studies provide tantalizing suggestions that the microbiome may play an active role in driving depressive-like behaviors suggesting potential new avenues for therapeutic development"
Sharon G, Sampson TR, Geschwind DH, Mazmanian SK. The Central Nervous System and the gut microbiome. Cell 2016; 167: 915-32.
Alkasir R, Li J, Li X, Jin M, Zhu B. Human gut microbiota: the links with dementia development. Protein Cell 2016; DOI 10.1007/s13238-016-0338-6
Significantly more Actinobacteria and less Bacteroidetes in MDD-associated microbial populations
patients and controls were transplanted to mice, the recipients of MDD samples exhibited much more depressive-like behaviour compared to controls
Evidence for the role of probiotics and the gut microbiome in autism spectrum disorder (ASD):
- The gut microbiome of ASD patients has an increased abundance and diversity of “unhealthy” bacteria4.
- The gut microbiome of ASD patients often lacks probiotic bacteria.
- Gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea are significantly more prevalent in children with ASD.
Evidence for probiotics and the gut microbiome in dementia
Dementia is a syndrome that affects memory and other cognitive functions to the extent that it interferes with daily function. There are many conditions that can cause dementia, including neurodegenerative disorders [e.g. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD)], cerebrovascular disease, brain injury, and certain infections. There are several studies cited by the authors that imply a role of the gut microbiome in AD and PD:
- Individuals afflicted with PD display significantly different fecal and mucosal microbial populations:
- There are increased numbers of tissue-associated E. coli in the gut of PD patients compared to healthy controls,
- Furthermore, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in feces from PD patients are decreased as compared to controls. SCFA are produced by bacterial fermentation in the gut, and are needed for normal nervous system development.
- Recent evidence suggests that molecules from bacteria present in the microbiota can trigger autoimmune responses that promote neurodegeneration during AD and PD.
- There are marked differences in the composition of the gut microbiome between AD mice and healthy mice and strongly indicated that a distinct microbial population in AD mice may play a role in the development of the disease.
From their extensive review of the literature, the American group conclude that there is a growing understanding of how different gastrointestinal tract microbial populations, beneficial or pathogenic, regulate the nervous system in health and disease. They contend that, “this holds promise in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of some specific neuropathologies. Determining how a microbiome, changing with Westernisation and other environmental factors, impacts a human population with growing rates of neurodevelopmental disorders and increasing life expectancy represents an urgent challenge to biomedical research and to society.”
The Chinese group reports a similar result. They propose that modulation of the gut microbiota (by probiotics or other dietary intervention) is a growing area of interest for the pharmaceutical and functional food industries, with the goal of decreasing the incidence of diseases associated with Westernisation and longevity, including Alzheimer’s disease.
4 These were reported to include Clostridia species, non-spore-forming anaerobes, microaerophilic bacteria and Sutterella.
In studies published in 2015 and recently (October 31, 2016), researchers at the University of Florida in the United States reported on the role that probiotics could play in reducing elevated blood pressure1,2.
It is well accepted that the gut microbiota (the trillions of bacteria, both good and bad, that live in your gastrointestinal tract) plays an important role in supporting and maintain a healthy immune system. In fact, the GI tract is commonly referred to as an essential acquired organ because its composition and richness are constantly adapting to the challenges presented by the environment or by the host, such as age, diet, lifestyle modifications and disease states.
Changes in gut microbiota have been related to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, eczema, allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, and infectious diseases.
However, the researchers found data from clinical trials to suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a role in the development and maintenance of heart disease and metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
Adult gut microbiota is diverse; it is made up of trillions of microorganisms but a delicate balance in its composition is key in maintaining good health; any disruption of this balance could lead to devastating physiological consequences.
They quoted the work of a group3 who in 2014 looked at several clinical trials that have been conducted over the past few years examining the effect of consumption of probiotics on blood pressure. Their combined analysis of nine randomized clinical trials with 543 participants in total showed a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients who consumed a daily dose of live probiotic organisms. This evidence indirectly suggests that gut microbiota may play a key role in the control of blood pressure and that any change in microbiota composition or imbalance may potentially result in hypertension.
Furthermore, the researchers went on to conduct their own study, and their results were consistent with previous clinical studies, showing that a shift in the gut microbiota was associated with higher blood pressure.
In a recent study (October 2016) the researchers concluded that a dysfunctional gut microbiota is associated with gut pathology, dysbiosis, and inflammation, and plays a key role in hypertension. “Thus, targeting of gut microbiota by innovative probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal transplant, in combination with current pharmacotherapy, may be a novel strategy for hypertension treatment.”
Yang T. et al., Gut dysbiosis is linked to hypertension. Hypertension 2015; 65:1331-1340
Santisteban MM, et al., Hypertension-linked pathophysiological alterations in the gut. Circ Res 2016 Oct 31.
Khalesi S, Sun J, Buys N, Jayasinghe R. Effect of probiotics on blood pressure. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Hypertension 2014; 64:897-903